Astigmatism

If you experience a distortion or blurring of images at all distances – nearby as well as far away – you may have astigmatism. Even if your vision is fairly sharp, headache, fatigue, squinting and eye discomfort or irritation may indicate a slight degree of astigmatism. A thorough eye examination, including tests of near vision, distant vision and vision clarity, can determine if astigmatism is present. Astigmatism is not a disease nor does it mean that you have "bad eyes." It simply means that you have a variation or disturbance in the shape of your cornea.

How is it diagnosed?

Astigmatism is diagnosed in the course of a thorough eye examination. If the degree of astigmatism is slight and no other vision correction such as nearsightedness or farsightedness is present, corrective lenses may not be needed. If the degree of astigmatism is great enough to cause eyestrain, headache or distortion of vision, prescription lenses will be needed for clear and comfortable vision.

How is it treated?

Your eye care professional will recommend corrective eyewear, contact lenses or spectacles, to help the eye direct light in a more effective manner.

The corrective lenses needed when astigmatism is present are called Toric lenses and have an additional power element called a cylinder. They have greater light-bending power in one axis than in others. CIBA VISION offers many Toric contact lenses for the correction of astigmatism – Focus® Toric, Focus® DAILIES® Toric, FreshLook® Toric, FreshLook ColorBlends® Toric and others.

Your eye care professional will perform precise tests during your eye examination to determine the ideal lens prescription.

What causes astigmatism?

Astigmatism usually occurs when the front surface of the eye, the cornea, has an irregular curvature. Normally the cornea is smooth and equally curved in all directions and light entering the cornea is focused equally on all planes, or in all directions. In astigmatism, the front surface of the cornea is curved more in one direction than in the other. With the cornea's shape more like that of an American football or rugby ball than a basketball, the light hitting the more curved surface comes to a focus before that which enters the eye through the less curved surface. Thus, the light is focused clearly along one plane, but is blurred along the other so only part of an image can be in focus at any time.

This abnormality may result in vision that is much like looking into a distorted, wavy mirror. The distortion results because of an inability of the eye to focus light rays to a point.

How does astigmatism affect sight?

The crystal clear cornea is situated at the very front surface of the eye and enables light to enter the eyeball. The cornea accomplishes about four-fifths of the refractive work needed for clear vision, bending light rays toward one another into a point. The lens, located behind the cornea, further refines the refractive work begun by the cornea and directs the point of light toward a precise location on the retina, known as the fovea. If light is not focused into a fine point on the fovea, the image that reaches the retina cannot be clearly transmitted to the brain.

When astigmatism is present, the surface of the cornea is distorted instead of being spherical. It is unable to focus light rays entering the eye into the fine point needed for clear vision. At any time, only small proportions of the rays are focused and the remainder is not, so that the image formed is always blurred. Usually, astigmatism causes blurred vision at all distances.

Why are corneas shaped differently?

Not all corneas are perfectly curved, just as sets of teeth are seldom perfectly aligned. The degree of variation determines whether or not you will need corrective eyewear. If the corneal surface has a high degree of variation in its curvature, light refraction may be impaired to the degree that corrective lenses are needed to help focus light rays better.

The exact reason for differences in corneal shape remains unknown, but the tendency to develop astigmatism is inherited. For that reason, some people are more prone to develop astigmatism than others.

Who develops astigmatism?

Astigmatism is very common. Some experts believe that almost everyone has a degree of astigmatism, often from birth, which may remain the same throughout life.

Of interest to parents and those who work with children, astigmatism may contribute to poor schoolwork but is often not detected during routine eye screening in schools.

Does astigmatism get worse?

Astigmatism may increase slowly. Regular eye care can help to insure that proper vision is maintained.

How will astigmatism affect my lifestyle?

You may have to adjust to wearing contact lenses or eyeglasses if you do not wear them now. Other than that, astigmatism probably will not significantly affect your lifestyle at all.

Cataracts

A cataract is a clouding or darkening that develops in the normally clear lens of the eye. This prevents the lens from properly focusing light on the retina at the back of the eye, resulting in a loss of vision. A cataract is not a film that grows over the surface of the eye

Glaucoma

Glaucoma can steal your vision gradually and without you noticing, yet glaucoma is a serious disease that can result in severe loss of sight. The best defense against glaucoma is regular eye examinations. Glaucoma most often strikes people over age 50, but it is recommended that during adult life everyone be tested at least every two years.

Myopia

If you can see objects nearby with no problem, but reading road signs or making out the writing on the board at school is more difficult, you may be near- or shortsighted.Your eye care professional may refer to the condition as myopia, a term that comes from a Greek word meaning "closed eyes." Use of the word "myopia" for this condition may have grown out of one of the main indications of nearsightedness: Squinting to see distant objects clearly.Myopia is not a disease, nor does it mean that you have "bad eyes." It simply refers to a variation in the shape of your eyeball. The degree of variation determines whether or not you will need corrective eyewear. 

What causes nearsightedness?

Myopia most often occurs because the eyeball is too long, rather than the normal, more rounded shape. Another less frequent cause of myopia is that the cornea, the eye's clear outer window, is too curved. There is some evidence that nearsightedness may also be caused by too much close vision work.

How does myopia affect sight?

Our ability to "see" starts when light enters the eye through the cornea. The shape of the cornea, lens and eyeball help bend (refract) light rays in such a manner that light is focused into a point precisely on the retina.In contrast, if you are nearsighted, the light rays from a distant point are focused at a place in front of the retina. As the light will only be focused in that one place, by the time it reaches the retina it will have "defocused" again, forming a blurred image.  

Who is affected by nearsightedness?

Myopia usually occurs between the ages of eight to 12 years. Since the eyes continue to grow during childhood, nearsightedness almost always occurs before the age of 20. Often, the degree of myopia increases as the body grows rapidly, and then levels off in adulthood. During the years of rapid growth, frequent changes in prescription eyewear may be needed to maintain clear vision.

How is myopia diagnosed?

Myopia is often suspected when a teacher notices a child squinting to see a blackboard or a child performs poorly during a routine eye screening. Further examination will reveal the degree of the problem.A comprehensive eye health examination will detect myopia. Periodic examinations should follow after myopia has been discovered to determine whether the condition is changing, and whether a change in prescriptive eyewear is needed. Eye exams also help to ensure that vision impairments do not interfere with daily activities.  

How is myopia treated?

Corrective concave lenses are prescribed to help focus light more precisely on the retina, where a clear image will be formed.Depending on the degree of myopia, glasses or contact lenses may be needed all of the time for clear vision.  

How will nearsightedness affect my lifestyle?

If glasses or contact lenses are prescribed, it may take you a few days to adjust to them. After that, nearsightedness will probably not significantly affect your lifestyle. However, more severely nearsighted individuals may find the condition limits their choice of occupation in some cases.

Nearsightedness in children

School-age children may have vision problems ranging from mild to severe. When problems are suspected, it is important that the child have a comprehensive eye health examination to determine the nature of the problem and to rule out serious eye diseases. When vision conditions are treated properly, the child will enjoy the best possible sight.  

To help a child cope with nearsightedness
  • Avoid referring to the child's eyes as "bad eyes;" instead, tell the child that his or her eyes just bend light differently and corrective lenses are needed to help focus light rays.
  • Use illustrations and simple explanations to help the child understand how a differently shaped eyeball may result in his or her nearsightedness.
  • Consider contact lenses as an option.
  • Do not restrict the child's activities because of poor vision.
  • Include the child in discussions about his or her eyesight.
  • Encourage the child to verbalize concerns about the adjustment to rapidly changing vision.